Northwestern University This paper examines the five-factor model, a tool used for dimensionally studying personality.
Psychological research has shown that women tent to excel in empathy and interpersonal relationships and tend to minimize hostility and conflict.
Men perceive threat from intimacy while women sense threat from separation. These gender differences can be translated into scenarios for advertising format making the advertisement more acceptable to each of the sexes.
The position is also changing with respect to the workforce.
Bythe Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that Also the purchase patterns of working women and women in general are changing. Some of the recent marketing research has concentrated on Research thesis on personality traits difference between various groupings of women Bartos; Lazer and Smallwood ; Spain and Bianchi ; Strober and Weinberg ; Venkatesh In these studies the following segments have been identified; the stay-at-home housewife, the plan-to work housewife, the "just a job" working woman and the career oriented working women.
Working women are more involved in financial activities, are more inclined to travel and are more likely to purchase a car on their own than non-working women Bartos It has also been shown that the career-oriented working women, with their changing needs and increasing income, may need to be marketed to differently from the stay-at-home housewives Bartos ; Venkateshbut the following question still remains: One important way to answer the above stated question is to study the psychological differences between the sexes and reach out to them accordingly.
As Bem and Markus and Crane point out the male-female dichotomy is the most fundamental one in society and it affects the information processing strategies of gender schema. In Marketing while the differences between men and women have been studied with respect to media usage, little research has been reported with respect to the application of psychological gender differences for the purposes of advertising.
In psychology, the gender differences have been studied from random angles, sexual, biological, social, and psychological. Primarily the gender differences have concerned topics like androgyny, sex role self-concept, levels of motivation and perception.
But it is the psychological gender differences that hold unique promise for advertising. It is the purpose of this paper to explore these differences and suggest propositions, scenarios and hypotheses for application in the ad.
Maccoby and Jacklin was an important comprehensive study on psychological differences. Contrary to what Roberts said about this study, there have been many advances since then in psychology to further refine the research on psychological differences.
Maccoby and Jacklin pointed out two major gender differences; hostility and empathy.
With respect to hostility, there was overwhelming evidence that men scored higher than women on most forms of expression of aggression.
With respect to empathy, even though women scored higher on this trait than men the evidence was not conclusive.
Since then studies by Antill and Wheeler et. The works of Bem,Spence et. We begin this section with a review of the literature on hostility, then on empathy, and finally how these traits affect the interpersonal relations for men and women.
Hostility and Aggression The greater incidence of male violence in both fantasy and reality is, as stated by Pollack and Gilliganand acknowledged by Benton et. Maccoby and Jacklin'sreview of aggression found using a wide variety of behavioral indexes, that males appear to be the more aggressive sex in a wide variety of settings and these studies consistently reveal that males are more aggressive than females.
Aggression may be the intent of one individual to hurt another. In turn, hurt may be the desire to hurt for its own sake or hurt may be the desire to control another person for other ends through arousing fear. Across cultures, Whiting and Popefound differences between sexes with respect to level of aggression.
While physical violence was rare among children agesboys engaged in more rough and tumble play mockfighting ; more verbal insults; and were more likely to counter-attack if aggressed against verbally or physically than girls.
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|Creativity and Psychoses: Real-World Examples||Use With Caution Many employers utilize personality tests in the employment selection process to identify people who have more than just the knowledge and skills necessary to be successful in their jobs.|
Standardized elicitings have been used to research aggression in individuals older than? In modeling studies, boys exhibited more aggression than females following exposure to an aggressive model.
There are suggestions that males and females may be equally aggressive in their underlying motivations to hurt. The two sexes may show their aggression differently, though. The first addresses reinforcement of different forms of aggression.
It may be that girls are "allowed" to show hostility in subtle ways but not physical ways. On the other hand, physical aggression may be thought appropriate for boys, whereas cattiness, for example, is not.
Different socialization pressures preclude behavioral differentiation in these two directions. The second approach deals with anxieties about aggression among females.
Training girls to think that they may not behave in a certain way and directly punishing them for aggressive behavior actively discourages them from displaying aggression.
As a result, it is suggested that females build up greater anxieties about aggression and greater inhibitions against displaying it.Many employers utilize personality tests in the employment selection process to identify people who have more than just the knowledge and skills necessary to be successful in their jobs. If anecdotes are to be believed—Dilbert must be getting at something [ ].
Personality psychologists—perhaps even more than in some other disciplines—are deeply interested in what is common to personality descriptions in all cultures and societies. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the potential universality of the Five Factor Model (FFM) of general personality structure.
The chapter begins with a discussion of what is meant, or should be meant, by a. Personality Psychology Research Topics. Share Flip Email Search the site GO. More in Student Resources or experiment for your personality psychology class?
Here are just a few ideas that might help kick-start your imagination. Possible Topics. How does temperament relate to creativity? Do people who share certain personality traits. Permalink. Hi. Your insights are quiet rich both in content and reason. I need your help.
i am doing a research paper and i cant seem to find a good Thesis statement for it as this is the first time i am doing an academic paper for my MBA.
This paper examines the five-factor model, a tool used for dimensionally studying personality. Aspects of the model given attention include the specific variables in the model, other related models, and clinical applications of the model. Emphasizing experimental and descriptive research, the Journal of Research in Personality presents articles that examine important issues in the.